This is an annotated bibliography organised by topic. These references are cited throughout the Guide.

1.      Reviews

1.1 Academica Group. (2015). Taking the Pulse of Work-Integrated Learning in Canada.


Ontario: Business/Higher Education Roundtable. Available at (accessed 10 January 2017)

This report, commissioned by the Business/Education Roundtable, reviews the availability of work-integrated learning, and the extent of student engagement in WIL, in post-secondary education in Canada, and makes recommendations on best practices in the design and delivery of WIL. Of particular interest are the descriptions and numerous examples provided of various forms of WIL. Much of the report focuses on off-campus WIL.

Useful for examples of WIL programs in Canada

1.2 AWPA. (2014). Work Integrated Learning AWPA Scoping Paper. Canberra: Australian Workforce and Productivity Agency. Available at (accessed 11 January 2017)


The AWPA Scoping Paper reviews academic literature on work-integrated learning in Australia, focussing on the current status, benefits and barriers, and options for increasing access and participation. It also provides a brief overview of international WIL programs, specifically from the USA and Canada.

Useful as a starting point for understanding WIL in Australia

1.3 Coll, R. K., & Zegwaard, K. E. (2012). An International Perspective of Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education: A Synthesis of Themes from the Second Edition of the International Handbook for Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education. Paper presented at the Collaborative Education: Investing in the future – Proceedings of the 2012 ACEN National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong.
1.4 Edwards, D., Perkins, K., Pearce, J., & Hong, J. (2015). Work Integrated Learning in STEM in Australian Universities. Canberra: Office of Chief Scientist & Australian Council for Educational Research. Available at (accessed 11 January 2017)


Probably the most detailed look to date on work-integrated learning in STEM disciplines in Australia. Commissioned by the Office of the Chief Scientist, it included every Australian university and builds upon previous WIL reviews by focussing on the status, challenges and recommendations specific to WIL in STEM disciplines. In particular, it focuses on WIL in the natural and physical sciences, agriculture, and information technology. It includes a comprehensive literature review on WIL in STEM, both nationally and internationally, and a series of Australian case studies.

Useful for understanding WIL from a STEM context

1.5 Ferns, S., Campbell, M., & Zegwaard, K. (2014). Work Integrated Learning. In S. Ferns (Ed.), Work Integrated Learning in the Curriculum. NSW: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia.
1.6 Orrell, J. (2011). Good practice report: Work-integrated learning. Sydney, Australia: Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Available at (accessed 29 March 2021)


Orrell reviewed 28 projects funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) to identify and distil good practice in WIL. She provides a list of 10 good practice principles for WIL, covering equity and access, student preparation and support, and curriculum integration and quality. The report includes a one-page summary of, and link to, each project.

Useful for a detailed overview of WIL research in Australia

1.7 Patrick, C., Peach, D., Pocknee, C., Webb, F., Fletcher, M., & Pretto, G. (2009). The WIL report: A national scoping study Final Report to the Australian Council for Teaching and Learning, ACEN. Sydney, Australia: Australian Council for Teaching and Learning.
1.8 Rowe, A. D., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Mackaway, J. A. (2012). That’s not really WIL!: Building a typology of WIL. Paper presented at the Collaborative Education: Investing in the future – Proceedings of the 2012 ACEN National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong.
1.9 Patrick, C.-j., Fallon, W., Campbell, M., Devenish, I., Kay, J., Lawson, J., . . . Cretchley, P. (2014). Leading WIL: A distributed leadership approach to enhance work integrated learning: final report 2014. Office for Learning and Teaching (

2.      Engaging employers

2.1 Ai Group. (2016). Uni students – good news for your business: Ai Group.
2.2 Atkinson, G., Misko, J., & Stanwick, J. (2015). Work integrated learning in STEM disciplines: employer perspectives: National Centre for Vocational Education Research. (accessed 11 January 2017).
2.3 Henderson, A., & Trede, F. (2017). Strengthening attainment of student learning outcomes during work-integrated learning: A collaborative governance framework across academia, industry and students. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 73-80.
2.4 Choy, S., & Delahaye, B. (2011). Partnerships between universities and workplaces: some challenges for work-integrated learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(2), 157-172. doi:10.1080/0158037X.2010.546079
2.5 Phillips KPA. (2014). Engaging employers in work integrated learning: current state and future priorities. Australian Workforce and Productivity Agency. Melbourne, Victoria. Retrieved from: 

3.      Engaging students

3.1 Dressler, S., & Keeling, A. E. (2011). Benefits of cooperative and work-integrated education for students. In R. K. Coll & K. E. Zegwaard (Eds.), International handbook for cooperative and work-integrated education: International perspectives of theory, research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 261-275). Lowell, MA: World Association for Cooperative Education.
3.2 Kuh, G. D. (2008). High-impact educational practices: What they are, who has access to them, and why they matter. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
3.3 Radloff, A., & Coates, H. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes – Australasian Student Engagement Report. Australian Council of Educational Research. Available from (accessed 4 April 2017).
3.4 Smith, C. (2012). Evaluating the quality of work-integrated learning curricula: A comprehensive framework. Higher Education Research and Development, 31(2), 247-262.
3.5 Cantalini-Williams, M. (2015). Teacher candidates’ experiences in non-traditional practicum placements: developing dimensions for innovative work-integrated learning models. In N. Maynes & B. E. Hatt (Eds.), The complexity of hiring, supporting, and retaining new teachers across Canada: Canadian Association for Teacher Education
3.6 Cooper, L., Orrell, J., & Bowden, M. (2010). Work Integrated Learning: A Guide to Effective Practice. Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge.
3.7 Fraser, S., & Deane, E. (2002). Getting bench scientists to the workbench. Paper presented at the Scholarly Inquiry in Flexible Science Teaching and Learning Symposium , UniServe Science, Sydney.
3.8 Dickson, K., & Kaider, F. (2012). Designing, developing and delivering work integrated learning to large student cohorts. Paper presented at the ACEN 2012 : Collaborative education : investing in the future, Geelong, Victoria.
3.9 Smith, C. (2012). Evaluating the quality of work-integrated learning curricula: A comprehensive framework. Higher Education Research and Development., 31(2), 247-262.
3.10 Baille, C., Jorre de St Jorre, T., & Hazel, E. (2017). Improving Teaching and Learning in Science and Engineering Laboratories. Hammondville NSW: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia.
3.11 Boud, D., & Rooney, D. (2014). What can Higher Education Learn from the Workplace? In A. Dailey-Hebert & K. S. Dennis (Eds.), Transformative Perspectives and Processes in Higher Education. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
3.12 Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. London: Further Education Unit.
3.13 Billet, S. (2011). Curriculum and pedagogical bases for effectively integrating practice-based experiences. Strawberry Hills, NSW: Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC).
3.14 Martin, A., Rees, M., & Edwards, M. (2011). Work integrated learning: A template for good practice. Wellington: Ako Aotearoa.

4.      Engaging colleagues

4.1 Peters, J., Academica Group Inc., (2012). Faculty Experiences with and Perceptions of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) in the Ontario Postsecondary Sector. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Available at (accessed 10 January 2017).   


Peters surveyed 3,604 faculty from 13 Canadian post-secondary education providers (6 colleges (vocational?) and 7 universities) regarding their perceptions and experience of WIL. This paper reports on the survey results, and provides some institutional recommendations for engaging and supporting faculty in WIL.

4.2 Johnson, E. (2014). Changing the Game in Science and Mathematics Higher Education. Office for Learning and Teaching, Canberra, Australia
4.3 Burke da Silva, K., Buckley, P., Roberts, M., Dent, L., Wood, D., & Gannaway, D. (2008). Raising the profile of teaching and learning: Scientists leading scientists. Australian Learning and Teaching Council, Sydney, Australia Retrieved from
4.4 Henderson, C., Beach, A., & Finkelstein, N. (2011). Facilitating change in undergraduate STEM instructional practices: An analytic review of the literature. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(8), 952-984. doi:10.1002/tea.20439
4.5 Dancy, M. H., & Henderson, C. (2008). Barriers and promises in STEM reform. Paper presented at the National Academies of Science Promising Practices Workshop, Washington, DC.
4.6 Coleman, S., & MacNicol, D. (2015). Project Leadership. Surrey, UK: Gower Publishing Ltd.
4.7 Senova, M. (2017). This Human: How to Be the Person Designing for Other People. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: BIS Publishers.
4.8 Jones, S., Harvey, M., & Lefoe, G. (2014). A conceptual approach for blended leadership for tertiary education institutions. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 36(4), 418-429
4.9 Scott, G., Coates, H., & Anderson, M. (2008). Learning leaders in times of change: Academic leadership capabilities for Australian higher education. Australian Council for Teaching and Learning. Accessed July 19, 2018 from

5.      Examples and case studies

5.1 The Lighthouse projects were commissioned in March 2016, as part of the WIL in Science Project. The six projects were spread across three WIL program development stages: Intention and Planning, Build and Trial, and Expand and Refine.


WIL development stage: Intention & Planning

Unifying WIL in Science at the University of Tasmania

Assoc. Prof. Tina Acuña, School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania

Describes the development of a generic, for-credit WIL unit for Science, informed by interviews with academics, students and industry stakeholders, and practice in allied disciplines (engineering, ICT, agriculture).

Providing WIL across complex interconnected science degrees

Dr Jo-Anne Chuck, Western Sydney University, School of Science and Health (Parramatta Campus)

Details a mapping exercise undertaken to assess existing WIL activities across courses/programs and identify gaps and deficiencies; and the development of a generic unit to allow students to obtain credit for existing placements and volunteering activities.

WIL development stage: Build & Trial

Exploring alternate models for WIL in Science: Linking Work with Learning

Prof. Peter Adams, Faculty of Science and Institute for Teaching and Learning Innovation, University of Queensland

Explores an alternative model of WIL through the development of a unit that academically expands on extant student work experience, that is, the current paid work in which students engage outside of their study.

Development of professional skills in science students through a work integrated learning honours stream

Dr Rowan Brookes, School of Biological Sciences. Monash University

Details the development of WIL-focused honours year to provide the ideal opportunity for sustained skill development of science graduates.

WIL development stage: Expand & Refine

Scaling-up Professional Experience Programs: developing a framework to support broad-based WIL

Prof. Peter C Meier, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney

Focuses on scaling-up existing WIL activities to comprehensively embed WIL in the curriculum across all Science disciplines, by creating an effective leadership team to ensure ongoing engagement with academic and professional staff and exploring tailored options for placement WIL that suit diverse employers.

Learning to Work, Working to Learn: Curriculum design and teaching practice for WIL in the Natural and Physical Sciences

Prof. Malcolm Campbell, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University

Details an approach to building capability and empowering course leaders and teaching teams to deliver WIL through the development of scaffolded curriculum initiatives.

5.2 Coldwell-Neilson, J., & Craig, A. (2012). Preparing for WIL: Online Career Development for IT students. Paper presented at the Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong. Available at (accessed 19 January 2017)


Outlines a program designed to assist IT students in developing their career management skills, including applying for a position in a simulation organisation, participating in a group interview, reflecting on their performance and developing an action plan to obtain and/or refine relevant skills and capabilities.

5.3 Daniel, R., & Shircoe, M., (2012). Transitioning undergraduate students from Law, Business, and Creative Arts towards Work Integrated Learning Capstone Experiences. Paper presented at the Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong. Available at (accessed 19 January 2017)


Provides a sample scaffolding structure for cross-disciplinary WIL, showing how WIL activities can be embedded and extended throughout a course. The example is from a Law and Business faculty but illustrates how WIL experiences can be built upon throughout a course to suit students’ knowledge and experience.

6.      Employability and employment

6.1 Coates, H., & Edwards, D. (2009). The 2008 Graduate Pathways Survey: Graduates’ education and employment outcomes five years after completion of a bachelor degree at an Australian university. Retrieved from (accessed 11 January 2017)


Reports on the results of the 2008 Graduate Pathways Questionnaire, investigating bachelor degree graduates’ education and employment outcomes five years after completion. In section 6, it provides a detailed look at the career pathways of science and engineering graduates.

Useful for statistics on graduate employment outcomes and perceptions of their university education

6.2 Coll, R. K., & Zegwaard, K. E. (2006). Perceptions of desirable graduate competencies for science and technology new graduates. Research in Science & Technological Education, 24(1), 29-58. doi:10.1080/02635140500485340
6.3 Graduate Careers Australia. (2015). The Australian Graduate Survey Report 2014. Melbourne: Graduate Careers Australia.
6.4 Jackson, D. (2014). Factors influencing job attainment in recent Bachelor graduates: evidence from Australia. Higher Education, 68(1), 135-153.
6.5 Jackson, D. (2015). Employability skill development in work-integrated learning: Barriers and best practice. Studies in Higher Education, 40(2), 350-367.
6.6 Oliver, B. (2015). Redefining graduate employability and work-integrated learning: Proposals for effective higher education in disrupted economies. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 6(1), 56-65.
6.7 Yorke, M., & Knight, P. (2006). Embedding employability into the curriculum. Higher Education Academy, York.
6.8 Jorre de St Jorre, T., & Oliver, B. (2017). Want students to engage? Contextualise graduate learning outcomes and assess for employability. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-14. doi:10.1080/07294360.2017.1339183
6.9 Jorre de St Jorre, T., Johnson, L., & O’Dea, G. (2017). Me in a Minute: a simple strategy for developing and showcasing personal employability. Paper presented at the Me, Us, IT! Proceedings ASCILITE2017: 34th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, Toowoomba, QLD.
6.10 Subramaniam, N., & Freudenberg, B. (2007). Preparing Accounting Students for Success in the Professional Environment: Enhancing Self-Efficacy Through a Work Integrated Learning Programme. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 77-92.
6.11 Australian Bureau of Statistics (2017) Education and Work, Australia. Retrieved from

7.      Policies and strategic documents

7.1 ACEN. (2015). National strategy on work integrated learning in university education: Australian Collaborative Education Network, Universities Australia, Australian Chamber of Commerce, Australian Industry Group, Business Council of Australia.
7.2 Higher Education Standards Framework. (2015). Canberra: Australian Government.
7.3 Prinsley, R., & Baranyai, K. (2015). STEM-trained and job-ready. Occasional Paper Series(12). Office of Chief Scientist. Available from (Accessed 4 April 2017).

8.      Assessment

8.1 Ferns, S., & Zegwaard, K. E. (2014). Critical assessment issues in work-integrated learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 179-188.
8.2 Yorke, M. (2011). Work‐engaged learning: towards a paradigm shift in assessment. Quality in Higher Education, 17(1), 117-130. doi:10.1080/13538322.2011.554316
8.3 Ferns, S., & Comfort, J. (2014). ePortfolios as evidence of standards and outcomes in work-integrated learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 269-280.
8.4 Carless, D. (2017). Scaling Up Assessment for Learning: Progress and Prospects. In D. Carless, S. M. Bridges, C. K. Y. Chan, & R. Glofcheski (Eds.), Scaling up Assessment for Learning in Higher Education. Singapore: Springer.
8.5 Boud, D. (2017). Standards-Based Assessment for an Era of Increasing Transparency. In D. Carless, S. M. Bridges, C. K. Y. Chan, & R. Glofcheski (Eds.), Scaling up Assessment for Learning in Higher Education (pp. 19-31). Singapore: Springer.
8.6 Zegwaard, K. E., Coll, R. K., & Hodges, D. (2003). Assessment of workplace learning: A framework. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(1), 10-18.
8.7 Brown, S. (2005). Assessment for learning. Learning and teaching in higher education(1), 81-89.
8.8 Jönsson, A., & Panadero, E. (2017). The Use and Design of Rubrics to Support Assessment for Learning. In D. Carless, S. M. Bridges, C. K. Y. Chan, & R. Glofcheski (Eds.), Scaling up Assessment for Learning in Higher Education. Singapore: Springer.
8.9 Watty, K., & McKay, J. (2015). Pedagogy and ePortfolios: Purpose aligned to design (or the why and how). International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 10(3), 194-207.
8.10 Hodges, D., Eames, C., & Coll, R. (2014). Theoretical perspectives on assessment in cooperative education placements. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 189-205.

9.      Reflection

9.1 Connaughton, J., & Edgar, S. (2012). What is the relevance of reflective practice in undergraduate e-portfolios to professional work practices? Paper presented at the Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong.
9.2 Connaughton, J., & Edgar, S. (2011). Framework for Reflective Practice Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 12(3), 89-93.
9.3 Chamberlain, S. (2012). Developing Reflection: a practice framework. Paper presented at the Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong.
9.4 Coleman, K., Cox, J., Das, M., Flood, A., Polly, P., Thai, T., & Yang, J. L. (2012). Eportfolios in the Sciences: The Role of Reflection as students build professional skills and career readiness. Future challenges, sustainable futures. In Proceedings ascilite Wellington 2012, 219-222.
9.5 Balfour, M. (2010). Developing the capacities of applied theatre students to be critically reflective learner-practitioners. Australasian Drama Studies, 57, 54-67.

10.      Evaluation

10.1 Stirling, A., Kerr, G., Banwell, J., MacPherson, E., & Heron, A. (2016). A Practical Guide for Work-integrated: Learning Effective Practices to Enhance the Educational Quality of Structured Work Experiences Offered through Colleges and Universities. Ontario: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.
10.2 Harvey, J. (Ed.) (1998). Evaluation Cookbook. Edinburgh, UK: Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative.
10.3 University of Tasmania. (2015). Teaching and Learning – Evaluation. Retrieved from
10.4 Brennan, J., & Williams, R. (2004). Collecting and Using Student Feedback: A Guide to Good Practice. UK: Learning and Teaching Support Network.

11.      Resources

11.1 GPS for WPL – A free online resource to enhance students’ workplace learning through the use of mobile technology. It covers privacy and ethical consideration, using technology for reflection.

11.2 IASK Employability tool – a simple worksheet developed by Professor Shelley Kinash to help students identify how their learning and assessments help prepare them for graduate success.

11.3 Sprial Identity Employability tool – Developed by Professor Shelley Kinash to help students understand and shape their professional identity and self-concept.